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2.7.5 MMVARI for PSK and Other Modes

1. The MMVARI Interface

The MMVARI soundcard interface is based on the MMVARI engine by Makoto Mori, JE3HHT.

All modes from the MMVARI engine are supported including bpsk (e.g. PSK31 and PSK63), qpsk-L (LSB), qpsk-U (USB - e.g. QPSK63), also RTTY-L (LSB), RTTY-U (USB), MFSK-L (LSB) and MFSK-U (USB) as well as non-standard modes GMSK (HF), FSK (V/UHF), FSK-W (V/UHF, satellite). The -L and -U variants of some of these modes are there to allow you to choose which sideband you use on the radio. In other words, you are not restricted to using LSB for RTTY and USB for other digital modes; you can choose to use either USB or LSB on the radio, and if you have chosen the correct mode variant in MMVARI, it will adjust the audio tones it uses to correspond to the sideband you have chosen.

tipRTTY
In Logger versions before 10.9.5, MMVARI supported RTTY using AFSK keying only. As of version 10.9.5, MMVARI is now capable of using FSK keying for RTTY (selected from the Configurer under the Digital Modes tab). Note, however, that the "FSK" mode in the MMVARI mode box is an entirely different mode - it is not FSK RTTY.


The MMVARI engine does not have to be installed separately, it is included in the N1MM logger program program/update files and is the default digital engine when loading the digital window for the first time.

1.1. The MMVARI Interface Window

Image

The Digital Interface window when using the MMVARI engine is broken into several areas which will be covered from the top down.

  • TX - Indicator to show which DI window the transmit is going to take place from (useful when using two DI windows for SO2R/SO2V)
  • Letters/Figs - Shows the text under the mouse in the other case (FIGS/LTRS - RTTY only)
  • MouseOver - Shows the text which would be selected where the mouse is positioned over

  • Receive Windows - The MMVARI engine supports from 1 to 4 receive windows. The number of receive windows is selected from the DI window's Setup > Settings menu item in the Digital Settings window under the MMVARI Setup tab at the lower right corner (# of MMVARI Channels). All of these windows operate in the same manner and you are able to grab callsigns from any of them and place them into the Entry window. Note that when the # of MMVARI Channels is set to 1, a different method of multiple RX channels becomes available (see The Waterfall or Spectrum Window below)


There is a colored pane on the left side of each receive window. By clicking on the colored pane you can pause input to the receive window to scroll back through the (last 2000 lines of) text using the scroll bars. When the window is paused the color of the pane will turn Yellow. To turn input to the window back on click in the pane again and everything that was to be printed to the window will now enter the window. When the receive window is paused it is possible to copy text in the window.

If you click on a callsign using your mouse it will be put into the callsign field in the Entry window.
Also, whenever a callsign is printed to any of the receive windows followed by a space it will be sent to the callsign grab window for easy movement to the logging window by clicking the Grab button.

You can select any exchange info by single clicking on the sent info. This info will be transfered over to the logger Entry window item by item after the callsign is filled in.

The top receive pane is the window used for making QSOs. Selecting another frequency for this window is done by left clicking in the Waterfall or Spectrum window. Changing the frequency of the other three receive windows is done by moving the numbered marker above the waterfall to the desired location. You can also use the Swap buttons in the lower part of the Waterfall window to exchange the selected window with the top receive window.

  • Transmit window - This is a free form typing window. If you click on the TX button the cursor will be placed into this window and whatever is typed will be sent. The size of this window is fixed at 2 lines
  • Callsign Textbox and Grab - When a callsign is encountered in one of the receive windows (followed by a space) it will be placed in this textbox and when you press the Grab button it will transfer the callsign over to the main logger window. The grab callsign window holds the last 10 callsigns seen in the RX window. The most current one is at the top and is highlighted. A right click in this box brings up a menu to clear list or selected callsign. Dupe callsigns will not be shown in the grab window


Note: If the callsign in the callsign field in the Entry window is the same as the callsign in the received text, the call in the Entry window does not get placed into the call list.

  • Clr RX - Clear all receive windows
  • TX - Places the interface into transmit, the transceiver is keyed, and places the cursor into the TX window for input. See the Radio Interfacing section for Parallel and Serial port info on configuring for hardware PTT
  • RX - This will place the interface back into receive mode after all the characters in the transmit buffer have been sent. To abort transmit immediately without waiting for remaining characters to be sent, press the Esc key
  • Macro buttons - These buttons on the Digital Interface are up to 24 extra Macros for preprogrammed messages. Configuring these macros is done in the Digital Interface window under 'Setup, Settings' or by right clicking on them which brings up the Digital Setup window. The macro buttons widths dynamically adjusts in relation to the width of the DI window
  • Grab - Transfer the selected callsign in the callsign text box to the callsign field on the main logger window. The cursor advances to the exchange box ready to accept the exchange when you click on it
  • CLR - Clears the grab window

1.2. The Waterfall or Spectrum Window

Image

The MMVARI digital engine window - This window uses the MMVARI control from Makoto Mori, JE3HHT. Across the top the title bar shows either the offset frequency (radio (+/-) audio) or the radio's dial frequency, depending on a setup option. As you tune your radio this will update and the numbers will change.

The screen shot here shows the window with four receive channels selected in the Digital Setup. There are cursors corresponding to each of the receive windows. The inverted triangle cursor, filled in in light blue, is for the main receive window. If NET is on, this is also your transmit frequency. If NET is off, there will be another inverted triangle filled in in dark blue indicating your transmit frequency. If you have more than one receive window enabled, a cursor with a number in it (1, 2, ...) corresponds to each additional receive window. To change frequency for the main receive window you can place your mouse pointer over a signal trace and click with your left mouse button. To change frequency for one of the other receive windows, you can click on the numbered cursor and drag it to the desired location in the waterfall.

noteTX Frequency and NET in FSK RTTY
Note that if you are using FSK keying in RTTY, MMVARI has no control over your transmit frequency. Your transmit frequency in FSK RTTY is fixed by the radio. Therefore, moving the dark blue transmit indicator does not change your actual transmit frequency in FSK RTTY. Likewise, the NET function is inoperative in FSK RTTY.

  • Buttons above the waterfall
    • TX - Start the transmission, the transceiver is keyed and places the cursor into the TX window for input. See the Radio Interfacing section for Parallel and Serial port info for TX/RX switching (PTT)
    • RX - Stops the transmission, the transceiver changes back to receive after all the characters in the transmit buffer have been sent. To abort immediately, press the Esc key
    • AFC - Turns AFC on or off. Selected (white) means AFC on (Note: This button is greyed out and disabled when the Multi-Channel RX browser feature is enabled)
    • NET - Turns NET on or off. Selected (white) means NET on. When NET is on the TX frequency follows the RX frequency (this function is inoperative in FSK RTTY)
    • Align - This is used to move the signal under the receive indicator to the Alignment Frequency set up in the Digital Setup window. This can be used in most sound card modes to center the received signal in your filter bandpass, and in FSK RTTY it is used to align the received signal with your transmitter's signal


Example: Suppose the center of the filter pass band is 2200 Hz. When clicking on a signal at about 1400 Hz the signal may be difficult to copy unless you are using wide filters. To move the signal to the center of your filter bandpass, click Align and the rig shifts and the spectrum frequency shifts and places the station on the frequency that was initialized in the Digital Setup window in the Alignment Frequency area. This allows you to narrow your filter bandwidth around the selected signal. If you are using FSK keying for RTTY and if your receive frequency is not exactly on the center frequency of your radio's mark/space tone pair (e.g. 2210 Hz for the standard 2125/2295 "high" tone pair), then you can use the Align button to retune your radio so your receive and transmit frequencies will be aligned correctly.

    • Mode selection - Select the mode to use by clicking on this button. The Speed selections are mode dependent. Selections are:
      • GMSK - MBCS experiment (HF) - Possible speed selections: 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250
        • not used for contests
      • FSK - MBCS experiment (V/UHF) - Possible speed selections: 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250
        • not used for contests
        • Do not confuse this mode with FSK RTTY - MMVARI's "FSK" mode is not FSK RTTY. Starting with Logger version 10.9.5, MMVARI does support FSK RTTY, but this can only be selected from the Configurer, not from the MMVARI window
      • FSK-W - MBCS experiment (V/UHF, satellite) - Possible speed selections: 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250
        • not used for contests
      • BPSK - MBCS experiment (HF) - Possible speed selections: 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250
        • for contesting purposes, BPSK and bpsk are equivalent
      • bpsk - Standard BPSK (e.g. PSK31) - Possible speed selections: 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250
      • rtty-L - BAUDOT RTTY (LSB) - Possible speed selections: 45.45, 50, 56, 75, 100, 110, 150, 200
      • rtty-U - BAUDOT RTTY (USB) - Possible speed selections: 45.45, 50, 56, 75, 100, 110, 150, 200
        • You may choose either AFSK or FSK keying method for RTTY in the Configurer under the Digital Modes tab
      • mfsk-L - MFSK (LSB) - Possible speed selections: 15.625, 31.25
      • mfsk-U - MFSK (USB) - Possible speed selections: 15.625, 31.25
      • qpsk-L - QPSK (LSB) - Possible speed selections: 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250
      • qpsk-U - QPSK (USB) (e.g. QPSK63)- Possible speed selections: 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250
    • Speed selection - Select the speed to use in bps by clicking on this button. The speed to select is mode dependent as described above
    • Main Channel receive frequency - audio frequency
      • In RTTY, MMVARI displays the center frequency, not the mark frequency as displayed in MMTTY
    • Main Channel transmit frequency - audio frequency
    • Main Channel S/N reading

  • The Waterfall
    • At the top of the waterfall offset frequency (radio (+/-) audio) labels and tick marks are displayed
    • Receive channel markers
      • Top markers (tag cursors)
        • 1,2,... - frequency receive channel 1,2,...
        • N - indicates a notch filter
      • The light blue colored marker (inverted triangle on the waterfall) indicates the main RX frequency
      • The dark blue colored marker (waterfall) indicates the TX frequency if it is different from the main RX frequency (only possible if NET is off)
  • Mouse key clicking
    • Left mouse key clicking - single clicking in the waterfall will change the main RX frequency
    • Right mouse key clicking - the audio frequency at the point clicked on will be shown. Also a menu will show:
      • Set notch on here - adds a new notch filter on the selected frequency indicated by a N in a yellow area. Multiple notches can be set; you can clear an individual notch by right-clicking on the N
      • Delete all notches - all set notches will be removed
      • Set TX Carrier on here - can be used to set the TX frequency (with NET off)
      • Turn Off Bandpass Filter - Turns the BPF off
      • RX 1 (2,3) Freq Here - can be used to set the RX 1, 2, or 3 frequency here (only if the # of MMVARI Channels is greater than 1)


The left vertical indicator shows the signal level meter (green) and the squelch level (yellow line). Biy clicking on it the squelch level can be changed.

  • Receive channels below the waterfall
    • If you have chosen to use more than one MMVARI channel, below the waterfall the additional receive channels will be shown. The number of additional channels below the main waterfall is one less than the total number of MMVARI Channels set, i.e. there can be up to three additional channels (up to four MMVARI channels in total - to display more than four channels, see the Multi-Channel RX feature below)
    • Mode - Select the mode to use for this receive channel
    • Speed - Select the speed to use for this receive channel
    • Receive channel frequency
    • Receive channel S/N value
    • AFC - Turns AFC on or off for the selected channel. Selected (white) means AFC on
    • Squelch indicator - The squelch can be adjusted by dragging the line indicator to where you want it and turning off the squelch by dragging it all the way left
    • Miniature waterfall display - shows within 500 hz of the signal that that channel is on. You can click anyplace in this miniature waterfall or drag the indicator to where you want it
    • Swap - Exchanges this receive window with the main receive window. While working one station, you can dial the second station in via a second receive window and after you finish the first contact just hit swap button and then call the other station. See below for an alternative method of multi-channel receive

  • Menu at the Top
    • BPF - Used to enable/disable an internal audio Band Pass Filter. The BPF filter has steep skirts and 80db of rejection outside the bandpass. However, because it is in the sound card and not in the radio, it has no effect on unwanted signals inside the radio, i.e. a strong unwanted signal inside the radio's IF filter bandpass can still trigger the radio's AGC and cause gain blocking, even though the signal has been rejected in the sound card by the BPF. You can only prevent this by selecting narrow filters in your radio
      • Enable/Disable BPF - turns BPF on or off
      • Wide 1000 Hz, Middle 500 Hz, Narrow 250 Hz, Ultra Narrow 100 Hz, Custom - filter bandwidth settings (grayed out when the BPF is disabled)
        • To set Custom width after enabling the BPF, left click in the waterfall where you want the BPF bandpass to start. Drag your mouse with the left button held down and release it where you want the BPF bandpass to end. The waterfall display will immediately relect the chosen Bandpass. This makes it simple to eliminate an offending station on the fly
        • The minimum width of the BPF that can be set is 100 Hz
      • The BPF can be turned off by selecting Disable BPF on the BPF menu or by right-clicking in the waterfall and selecting Turn off bandpass filter
      • The BPF settings are retained when you close and reopen the digital engine window
    • ATC - Used to turn Automatic Timing Control (ATC) on or off. It is recommended to keep ATC on all the time for better signal decoding
      • when RTTY is selected ATC is always off
      • in MFSK mode ATC is always on
    • FFT - FFT is Fast Fourier Transform, which is a method of extracting the spectrum out of a waveform. That is the basic tool that gives the waterfall and spectrum scope displays
      • FFT Type - Select the FFT display method. Selections are: Spectrum, Waterfall, Sync or Wave Input
      • FFT Width - Select the display width (frequency range). Selections are: 250 Hz, 500 Hz, 1000 Hz, 2000 Hz, 3000 Hz or User Defined. User Defined width is set in the Digital Setup window
      • FFT Scale - Select the vertical scale to use. Selections are: 100 dB, 60 dB, Square Amplitude
      • Waterfall AGC - Turn the waterfall AGC on or off
      • Align after Left Click - Automates the Align process. Any time a signal is clicked on in the waterfall, an automatic Align operation is performed to re-center the audio frequency on the Alignment Frequency you have selected in the Digital Setup window
    • SHIFT - Shift selections. The choices are 170 Hz, 200 Hz, 23 Hz or User Defined
      • Only in RTTY-L, RTTY-U and GMSK
    • RTTY Demodulator - select either IIR or FFT decoder. Depending on conditions, one may decode better than the other
      • Only in RTTY-L and RTTY-U


Image

    • Multi-Channel Rx - This feature is only available when the # of MMVARI Channels in the Digital Setup window under the MMVARI Setup tab is set to 1. It is an alternative method of receiving multiple signals simultaneously with MMVARI
      • Open (or Close) Multi Channel Browser - turns this feature on or off
        • When the Multi-Channel RX feature is turned on, there will be several numbered tag cursors at the top of the waterfall, and a separate browser window will open (see below). The number of channels is user-selectable (from 2 to 24)
        • Each line in the browser window shows text decoded under the corresponding numbered cursor
        • There is only one RX pane in the Digital Interface window, which displays text from the main RX signal under the light blue inverted triangle cursor
        • You can move the main RX cursor to the position of any of the numbered tag cursors simply by clicking in the corresponding small text window
        • You can use this feature to keep track of several separate signals being received. You can work each one in turn by clicking in the corresponding numbered text window to move the main RX/TX frequency (with NET on) to each numbered cursor position in turn (if NET is off, or you are using FSK RTTY, clicking in the text window only moves the RX frequency but not the TX frequency)
      • Set Number of RX Channels - you can select from 2 to 24 channels to display in the browser window
      • Set AFC Search Level - Used to set the signal level (S/N ratio) used to determine whether a signal is strong enough to activate the AFC and cause the RX frequency to move to it (can be set from 1 to 20 dB)
      • Set AFC Search Range - Each extra RX channel has AFC (automatic frequency control) which moves the cursor to keep it centered on a signal if the frequency changes slightly. This menu item is used to set the frequency range over which this feature operates (can be set from 100 to 500 Hz)
      • Set Spectrum Search Frequencies - Allows you to set the lower and upper limits for the browser channels. The lower limit can be 250 Hz or higher, and the upper limit can be 2700 Hz or lower
      • Turn Channel Markers On - If unchecked, channel markers will not be displayed
      • Show Audio Frequency Only - if checked, audio frequencies will be displayed instead of RF frequencies


The Multi-Channel RX method allows you to keep track of more channels (max 24) than the older # of MMVARI Channels method (max 4) that you set up from the Digital Setup window. The memory for each channel is limited to 80 characters. You can click on callsigns in the callsign column of the browser window in order to transfer them to the Entry window, or in Dxpedition mode (see below), you can click on a callsign in the browser window in either the decoded stream or the callsign column to: move the RX cursor (and if NET is on, the TX cursor) to that channel, transfer the callsign to the Entry window, and transfer the last 80 characters decoded in that channel into the main RX window. All channels in the browser in this method will be in the same mode. In RTTY, clicking on the channel marker for a channel switches between normal and reverse decoding in that channel. (For another way to do multiple receive in PSK only, you can also try the PSK Browser in Fldigi).



Image

Browser window in multi-channel RX (older version)

  • Setup menu
    • Set On Top - check this if you want to ensure that the browser window is always on top of other windows
    • Set AFC Width - set the frequency range for AFC in each browser channel
    • Set AFC Level - set the signal level that activates AFC
    • Set Squelch Level - set the squelch level in the browser
    • Set Chennal Background Color - set the background color for the text in the browser window
    • Set Channel Text Color - set the color for text in the browser window
    • Set Channel Highlight Color - set the color for the highlighted channel
    • Dxpedition mode - turns Dxpedition mode on or off
      • With Dxpedition mode off, clicking on a channel in the browser moves the main RX cursor to the frequency of that channel. If NET is on, the TX cursor also moves to the same frequency
      • With Dxpedition mode on and NET off, clicking on a callsign in either the text stream or the callsign box in a browser channel:
        • Moves the main RX cursor to the frequency of that channel, leaving the TX cursor where it was
        • Transfers the last 80 characters from that channel into the main RX window
        • Transfers the callsign into the Entry window
        • Can be used in a Dxpedition situation where your TX frequency is fixed and you want to work stations anywhere in your receive range
      • With Dxpedition mode on and NET on (this is not possible in FSK RTTY), clicking on a callsign in either the text stream or the callsign box in a browser channel:
        • Moves the main RX and TX cursors to the frequency of that channel
        • Transfers the last 80 characters from that channel into the main RX window
        • Transfers the callsign into the Entry window
        • Can be used for normal S&P operating. After switching to the frequency of the selected channel, you can click on the Align button to center that channel in your receiver's filter bandpass
  • CLEAR menu - clears the browser window

1.3. Macros

  • The macros for the Interface using MMVARI are different from the way they work with the TNC . What ever you put in the macro will get transmitted. There is a macro keyword needed to turn TX ON {TX} or TX OFF {RX}
  • There is no special abort macro needed for use with MMVARI just using the ESC key will stop transmitting
  • The TX and RX buttons are for the free form typing in the TX window
  • When MMVARI loads, it loads the last used settings when the Interface was closed

2. Setting Up the Digital Interface

The setup dialog is for both MMTTY and MMVARI, this means that some settings are only for MMVARI, MMTTY or both. When selecting 'Setup | Settings' in the Digital Interface window a dialog wil be shown which is both for MMTTY and MMVARI. Please check the setup information in the Digital Setupchapter.

3. MMVARI Example: Make a PSK Transmission

  • We need to make room for the Digital Interface so for now minimize the Logger Telnet/Packet window
  • Now select 'Window | Digital Interface' and the Digital Interface and the Waterfall/Spectrum window will open. The Digital Interface dialog can be positioned and resized on your monitor as desired
  • Left clicking on a call will grab the callsign. Right clicking on the RX and TX window will pop a menu (S&P mode) or send the Exchange function key in Running mode
  • Pressing Insert will Grab the highlighted call and sends His call followed by the Exchange button
  • Double clicking on a callsign in the callsign box from the Digital Interface sends that call to the Entry window
  • A callsign is automatically highlighted if recognized by the program. For that to happen it needs to have a space before and a space after the callsign. If the first thing on a new line in the Digital Interface window is a valid callsign, it is not highlighted or added to the grab list

4. MMVARI - Other

  • The Radio Frequency display on the Waterfall and Spectrum display follows the active Radio Frequency
  • The last PSK mode used is remembered, so the next time the last used mode is selected.
  • Getting (PSK) object errors during program start or starting PSK?
  • During transmit, callsigns are not grabbed from the receive window.


Last Modification: 12 September 2013 10:15:31 EDT by VE3KI.